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Click here for a Formative Assessment Bibliography

Articles on  Feedback/Formative Assessment

Ash, D. & Levitt, K. (2003)--Working within the Zone of Proximal Development: Formative Assessment as Professional Development--This article, while difficult to read at first, lays a foundation to understand how formative assessment can challenge and activate student/teaching thinking. It describes two case studies and how teachers transformed their classroom practice due to the fact that they saw a mismatch between teacher expectations and student level of performance

Black and William (1998) Inside the Black Box--This ground breaking article discusses the power of formative assessment practices.

Boss, S. (2012). The Challenge of Assessing Project-Based Learning--An article written for administrators and teachers that outlines the challenges associated with moving towards a PBL approach on the heels of the common core.

Brookhart, S. (2008). Feedback that fits--An article by Dr. Susan Brookhart that outlines the power (both good and bad) that teacher to student feedback has. There are effective and ineffective ways in which to deliver feedback.

Erickson, J (2011). Transforming grading practices--This is an article from Principal Leadership on grading.

Feedback Activity Handbook

Hattie & Taimperley (2007) The Power of Feedback--This article provides a meta-analysis of the effect sizes pertaining to

certain types of teacher feedback to students. Feedback is a type of formative assessment and the use of it has a profound

impact on student achievement.

Heritage, M. (2010). Formative assessment and next-generation assessment systems: Are we losing an opportunity?--this paper was prepared for the Council of Chief State School Officers in September of 2010 and we should all be happy that it was. With RttT fund mania afoot, the spirit of "formative assessment" is being confused with tests and grades. Great work and reference section that reminds us that formative assessment IS A PROCESS and not A PRODUCT.

Position Paper on Assessment for Learning at the 3rd Annual AfL Conference, March, 2009

Stiggins (2005)From Formative Assessment to Assessment FOR Learning--a short article by the leader on formative


Stiggins (2007). Assessment through the student's eyes. This article discusses how formative assessment and student feedback can be used to end the "losing streaks"

that some students experience. The focus is on setting students up for success and turning around failure. 

Stiggins (2009). Assessment FOR Learning in the Upper Elementary Grades--An article that appeared in PDK

written by Stiggins that reviews the direct application of AfL principles within grades 4 to 6.

Chappuis & Chappuis provide a webinar on the Seven Strategies of Assessment For Learning

Articles on Quality Teaching Practices

Lloyd, J. (2010). Engineering and facilitating high-quality instructional practices and environments--this is the text from an on-line learning module that I wrote for the

Ohio Leadership Advisory Council. The focus is on macro-educational strategies that have been demonstrated to make profound differences in student achievement.

Marzano (2009) Setting the record straight on high yield strategies--this article is taken from PDK and it cautions educators from focusing on a narrow range of strategies;

assuming that a very narrow set of strategies must be used in every class and that they will always work. In short, Marzano advocates for the urgency of educators

within districts to certainly start with a set of strategies like his 9 in order to open the conversation as a means to establish a more comprehensive list of strategies that relate to effective teaching.

Education Trust (2004) The Real Value of Teachers: If good teachers matter, why don’t we act like it? --from Education Trust. 

Discusses research associated with quality teaching practices and the impact that high quality instruction has on

 student achievement.  Value-added is also discussed.

Sanders and Rivers (1996) Cumulative Effects of Teachers on Achievement --This is one of the first articles written

by William Sanders, on Value-Added Assessment.

Marolt, D.M., Goss, S. & Lloyd, J. (2009). First Things First: Ensuring High Quality Instruction for All Learners--

This article was written for school psychologists and appeared in the Ohio School Psychologist. The article emphasizes

the importance of high quality instruction and how getting it "right" the first time (on Tier 1) is most important. 

Haycock, K. (1998). Good Teaching Matters: How Well Qualified Teachers Can Close the Gap--This article serves as a

good overview of the research on the impact of high quality instruction and student achievement.

Elliott, J. & Fuchs, D. (2009). What Does RTI Mean for the Classroom?--A brief article that serves as a Q and A related

to RTI and how important it is to "get it right" in Tier 1...core classroom instruction.

Articles on Leadership

Danielson, C. (2007). The many faces of leadership--This article comes from ASCD and talks about how teachers

can be leaders and still remain teachers.

Ingersoll, R.M. (2007). Short on power, long on responsibility--This article comes from ASCD and reviews the

importance of teacher leadership and that if we want teachers to be "real" leaders then the power structure needs to

be diffused in order to help facilitate.

Articles on Professional Development Practices

Pritchard & Marshall (2002)Professional Development in ‘Healthy’ vs. ‘Unhealthy’ Districts: Top 10 characteristics based on research-

an article on how PD activities differ between "healthy" and "unhealthy" districts.  The authors define quality

PD practices and use a massive data base to conduct their study.

Marshall, J. C., Pritchard, R. J., & Gunderson, B. (2001) Professional Development: What’s Working & Not Working --

Based on three years of study in 18 school districts, they conclude that high quality professional development provides the

infrastructure for building excellent schools when it is anchored to an overriding vision focused on what is best for

students that permeates the district.  However, less than quality professional development  is at best a waste of

scarce educational resources and at worst a deterrent to real, sustained  improvement.  

Lloyd, J. (2007). Data Informed Decision Making and Value-Added Assessment: Our Professional Development Future--

This is a brief article that I wrote for OAESA's Principal Navigator.  It discusses how value-added assessment data serves

as one cog in the wheel of school improvement.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2009). Professional Learning in the Learning Profession: A Status Report on Teacher Development--

Provides a comprehensive review as to where US teachers stand in relationship to the time provided to

them to engage in collaboration with their colleagues.

Articles on District/School Improvement

Framework for Improvement: Effective School Leadership Translates into Increased Student Learning--this is an article

that appeared in the National Staff Development Council's journal pertaining to Principal Leadership.

Hanushek (1998) Conclusions and Controversies About the Effectiveness of School Resources--Hanushek is one of

the most well thought of authors on school finance.  This article talks about the utilization of school resources.

Lloyd, J. (2009) How creating an educational Frankenstein can help you learn and lead your educational organization

Lloyd, J., McNulty, B. & Telfer, D. (2009).

Lloyd, J. (2007). Continuous Improvement Planning as a Value-Adding Mechanism--An article published in the

 Principal Navigator that pertains to how engaging in a continuous improvement process helps the district add

value to student achievement and growth.

Marzano (2008). Three Critical Commitments of School Reform--This article pulls together much of Marzano's

work on classroom instruction and assessment and frames it within how to make school reform really work.

Reeves, D. (not sure of date) High Performance in High Poverty Schools: 90/90/90 and Beyond--This article

reviews Reeves' previous research about how public schools have overcome tremendous odds. If you work in

 an urban setting and feel that you aren't making a difference, this should provide you with some much needed

relief. The article discusses how schools with 90% free and reduced lunch and 90% ethnic/racial diversity can

 have students reach mastery of learning indicators at a 90% proficiency level.

Articles on Value-Added Assessment

Annotated Bibliography on Value-Added Assessment by Jim Lloyd

Darling-Hammond Presentation on Value-Added Assessment

Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability by RAND

Eric Hanushek Presentation on Teacher Value-Added

Lloyd, J. (2007) Adopting a Value-Added Frame of Mind--Notes from the Field--An article published

 in the Principal Navigator that pertains to how engaging in a continuous improvement process helps the

 district add value to student achievement and growth.

Lloyd, J. L. (2008). Instituting a Value-Added Assessment System in Ohio: The Professional Development Implications from the Perspective of the District Value-Added

 Specialists.  Although much has been written

about the various value-added models from a statistical point of view, there is a considerable lack of literature

related to the professional development implications of value-added once a particular model has been chosen.

This study illuminates and describes some of the professional development implications related to Ohio's scale up

of its educational value-added assessment system from the perspective of those responsible for teaching its

 implications to others at the local level – the District Value-Added Specialists. Six research questions were explored

using a survey instrument that was developed by the researcher. The results were reviewed and discussed.

The practical implications of instituting a value-added assessment model include using value-added data with

other forms of data in order to improve instructional practices. Suggestions were provided specific to Ohio's

value-added scale-up and its impact on educators.

Measuring Teachers' Contributions to Student Learning Growth for Nontested Grades and Subjects (2011)--This National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality document was developed to help states consider growth mesurement for teachers who teach subjects whose disciplines do not contain standardized tests. 

Ryshke, R (2013). Value-Added Teacher Evaluations: Will They Be a Game Changer

Sanders, W.L. & Rivers, J.C. (1996). Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement--

An article written by Bill Sanders and his wife that summarizes the impact teachers have on student growth. 

Sanders, W.L. (2004). A Summary of Conclusions Drawn from Longitudinal Analyses of Student Achievement Data over the Past 22 Years (1982—2004)

Selecting Growth Measures (2011). This is an article written by the Battelle for Kids Organization that was commissioned by the Gates Foundation. 

Tekwe, et al (2004). An Empirical Comparison of of Statistical Models for Value-Added Assessment of School Performance

Wright, Horn & Sanders (1997). Teacher and Classroom Context Effects on Student Achievement

Notes from Dr. Bill Sanders' Presentation at the ESC in Cleveland, OH 12_11_07

Articles on Funding an Adequate Education

Levins, H., Belfield, C., Muennig, P. & Rouse, C. (2007). The costs and benefits of an excellent education for all of America's children.


Important Things from the Ohio Department of Education

October, 2009 Update regarding Curriculum, Instruction & Assessment

Entering Kindergarten Handout from NASP